S. Jamal et al., 2020.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy by blocking inhibitory pathways of the immune system to fight cancer cells. Their use is often limited by the development of autoimmune toxicities, which can affect multiple organ systems and are referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). Among these are rheumatologic irAE, including inflammatory arthritis, myositis, vasculitis, and others. Rheumatologic irAE seem to be different from irAE in other organs and from traditional autoimmune diseases in that they can occur early or have delayed onset, and can persist chronically, even after cancer therapy is terminated. Because immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly used for many types of cancer, it is important for oncologists and rheumatologists to recognize and manage toxicities early. In this review, we discuss currently approved immune checkpoint inhibitors and their mechanisms of action and systemic toxicities, with a focus on the management and effect on further cancer therapy of rheumatic irAE.
Jamal, S., Hudson, M., Fifi-Mah, A., & Ye, C. (2020). Immune-related Adverse Events Associated with Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review for the Practicing Rheumatologist. The Journal of Rheumatology, 47(2), 166–175.